Emperors are found in the tropical waters of the Pacific and Indian oceans.  They feed mostly on invertebrates and small fishes.  Some have molariform teeth, which they use to eat shelled invertebrates like crabs.

Click the arrow symbol under each fish for more information.

Lethrinus olivaceus, Longface Emperor
    • Max length 100 cm, common length 70 cm. Crimson cast on face and fins in large courting males
    • Body color is gray, becoming lighter ventrally, often with scattered irregular dark blotches
    • Snout has wavy dark streaks
    • Found in sandy coastal areas, lagoons, and reef slopes. Juveniles in shallow sandy areas. Depth range 1-185 m
    • Often occurs in large schools
    • Feeds mainly on fish, crustaceans and cephalopods
    • Large individuals possibly ciguatoxic throughout Oceanic
    • Low resilience, minimum population doubling time 4.5 – 14 years. Moderate vulnerability

Lethrinus exanthochilus, Yellowlip Emperor
    • Max length 70 cm, common length 59 cm
    • Depth range up to 150 m
    • Body yellowish gray with scattered irregular dark spots; lips yellowish, more intense on upper lip; a red spot at upper base of the pectoral fin
    • Fins bluish gray and mottled, bases of the fins are lighter and the edges of the dorsal and caudal fins are reddish
    • Occurs in small groups over seagrass beds, sand and rubble areas of coral reefs, deep channels, and lagoons. Usually found in shallow areas
    • Usually seen in solitary but sometimes swims in small groups
    • Feeds mainly on crustaceans, fishes and sea urchins
    • Low resilience, minimum population doubling time 4.5 – 14 years
    • High vulnerability

Monotaxis grandculis, Humpnose Big-eye Bream
    • Max length 60 cm, common length 40 cm
    • Inner surface of pectoral fin is densely scaled
    • Body bluish-gray grading to whitish on ventral parts; lips are yellow to pinkish. Area around eye is often yellow or orange. Fins are without distinctive markings. Base of upper pectoral fin rays and inner base of the pectoral axis are black. Caudal fin usually has blackish rays contrasted against the paler membrane part of the fin
    • Small juveniles whitish on lower half with three prominent black saddles separated by narrower white bars on upper half. Vertical black bar crosses eye from above
    • Found in sand and rubble areas near coral reefs. Depth range 1-100 m (usually 5-30 m)
    • Solitary fish not uncommon, but large adults usually form aggregations of up to 50 individuals
    • Nocturnal feeders, mainly on mollusks, sea urchins and brittle stars
    • Have been reports of ciguatera poisoning
    • Medium resilience, minimum population doubling time 1.4 – 4.4 years